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The Linux-to-SmartOS Cheat Sheet

The things that make SmartOS different from other Unix-like systems generally fall in two categories:

  • Similar commands with different names in SmartOS.
  • Different procedures for accomplishing similar things in SmartOS.

The following is a list of commands to help Linux users find equivalent commands in SmartOS and SmartMachines.  Note that some of these are not available within SmartMachines due to permission restrictions, and some commands, when run in a SmartMachine, return a subset of the output on the global zone in SmartOS.  Also note that many commands available on Linux are also available on SmartMachines. For instance, you can use pkgin install top to install top(1).

This list is derived from

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Linux and SmartOS Commands

TASK / OS Linux SmartOS SmartOS Virtual Instance (zone)
*table key* * (rh) = Red Hat, Mandrake, SUSE,... * (deb) = Debian, Libranet,... * (fed) = Fedora  * (gen) = Gentoo  * (md) = Mandrake/Mandriva * (SUSE) = SUSE Joyent SmartOS You can find an open source version at Joyent SmartOS zone
managing users useradd usermod userdel adduser chage  getent useradd userdel usermod getent logins groupadd useradd  userdel  usermod  getent  logins  groupadd
list hardware configuration arch uname dmesg *(if you're lucky)* cat /var/log/dmesg /proc/* lshw dmidecode lspci lspnp lsscsi lsusb lsmod *(SUSE)* hwinfo /sys/devices/* arch prtconf [-v] prtpicl [-v] uname psrinfo [-v]  isainfo [-v] dmesg iostat -En cfgadm -l /etc/path_to_inst arch uname psrinfo [-v] isainfo [-v] dmesg iostat -En
read a disk label fdisk -l fdisk prtvtoc
label a disk cfdisk fdisk e2label format prtvtoc fdisk
partition a disk parted *(if you have it)* cfdisk fdisk pdisk *(on a Mac)* *(deb)* *mac-fdisk* (on a Mac)_ *(md)* _diskdrake format fmthard rmformat
kernel /boot/vmlinuz* /boot/bootlx (see /etc/lilo.conf or /boot/grub/menu.lst) /kernel/genunix /platform/`uname -m`/  kernel/unix kernel modules are in /kernel, /usr/kernel, and /platform/`uname -m`/kernel Kernel module files not visible within a zone
show/set kernel parameters /proc/* /proc/sys/* sysctl /etc/sysctl.conf sysdef getconf  cat /etc/system ndd mdb -k[w] sysdef getconf ndd
loaded kernel modules lsmod modinfo modinfo
load module modprobe insmod modload add_drv devfsadm
unload module rmmod modprobe -r modunload
startup scripts /etc/rc* (but may vary) /etc/init.d/ SMF(5) /etc/rc* /etc/init.d/  svcadm svcs SMF(5) /etc/rc* /etc/init.d svcadm svcs
start/ stop/ config services *(rh)* _service *(rh)* _chkconfig *(deb)* _sysv-rc-conf svcs svcadm  svccfg svcs svcadm svccfg
shutdown (& power off if possible) shutdown -Ph now  shutdown -y -g0 -i0 halt poweroff shutdown -y -g0 -i5 halt shutdown -y -g0 -i5 halt
run levels *=normal states  *for more detail* *see* []( (set in /etc/inittab) 0: halt s,S,1: *vendor-dependent* 1: single-user 2-5*: multiuser 6: reboot 0: firmware monitor s,S: single-user 1: sys admin 2: multiuser 3*: share NFS 4*: user-defined 5: power-down if possible 6: reboot s,S: single-user  1: sys admin  2: multiuser  3*: share NFS  4*: user-defined  5: power-down if possible  6: reboot
show runlevel  /sbin/runlevel who -r who -r
time zone info /usr/share/zoneinfo/ /etc/localtime /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/ /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo
check swap space swapon -s cat /proc/meminfo cat /proc/swaps free swap -s[h] swap -l[h] *Note: in a zone, swap is virtual* *memory size* swap -s[h] swap -l[h]
bind process to CPU taskset (sched-utils) pbind psrset pbind psrset
killing processes kill killall kill pkill killall *<- tries to kill everything, DO NOT USE THIS* kill pkill killall *<- tries to kill everything, DO NOT USE THIS*
show CPU info cat /proc/cpuinfo lscpu psrinfo -pv psrinfo -pv
memory freemem prtconf | head zonememstat prtconf | head zonememstat
"normal" filesystem ext2 ext3 ReiserFS zfs zfs
file system description /etc/fstab /etc/vfstab /etc/vfstab
create filesystem mke2fs mkreiserfs mkdosfs mkfs zfs  zpool zfs (if zone has delegated dataset)
file system debugging and recovery fsck debugfs e2undel zdb
create non-0-length empty file dd if=/dev/zero of=*filename*  bs=1024k count=*desired* mkfile mkfile
create/mount ISO image mkisofs mount -o loop *pathToIso* *mountPoint* mkisofs;DEVICE=`lofiadm -a /*absolute_pathname*/*image*.iso` ; mount -F hsfs -o ro $DEVICE
ACL management getfacl setfacl getfacl setfacl getfacl setfacl
NFS share definitions /etc/exports /etc/dfs/dfstab dfshares
NFS share command /etc/init.d/nfs-server reload_(rh)__ _exportfs -a share shareall
NFS information cat /proc/mounts showmount nfsstat nfsstat
name resolution order /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/resolv.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf getent /etc/nsswitch.conf getent
show network interface info ifconfig ethtool dladm ndd ifconfig -a netstat -in dladm ndd ifconfig -a netstat -in
change IP *Joyent Public Cloud IP addresses are set in the* *[Cloud Management Portal](* ifconfig
ping one packet ping -c 1 *hostname* ping *hostname* * packetsize 1* ping *hostname packetsize* 1
sniff network etherfind tcpdump wireshark (*formerly* _ethereal) etherape snoop snoop tcpdump available from pkgin
route definitions *route* *(rh) */etc/sysconfig/network *(rh) */etc/sysconfig/static-routes *(deb)* /etc/init.d/network *(deb)* /etc/network /etc/defaultrouter /etc/notrouter /etc/gateways in.routed netstat -r route add /etc/defaultrouter  /etc/notrouter  /etc/gateways  in.routed  netstat -r  route add
telnetd, ftpd banner /etc/ *(telnet)* *(ftp varies; can use tcp wrappers)* Use nc instead Use nc instead
set date/time (from net: ntp or other) ntpdate rdate netdate ntpdate rdate ntpdate rdate
auditing auditd /var/log/faillog audit auditd auditreduce praudit audit auditd auditreduce praudit
encrypted passwords in /etc/shadow *(may vary)* /etc/shadow /etc/shadow
min password length /etc/pam.d/system-auth /etc/default/passwd /etc/default/passwd
allow/deny root logins /etc/securetty /etc/default/login /etc/default/login
firewall config iptables ipchains ipfwadm *(rh)* redhat-config- securitylevel /etc/ipf/ipf.conf /etc/ipf/ipf.conf
show installed software *(rh)* _rpm -a -i *(rh)* _rpm -qa  *(rh)* yum list installed *(deb)* dselect *(deb)* aptitude *(deb)* dpkg -l *(gen)* _ls /var/db/pkg/* *(gen)* _eix -I pkgin list pkgin avail  *<- list available installable software*
add software *(rh)* _rpm -hiv  *(rh)* yum install *pkg* *(deb)* dselect *(deb) _apt-get install _pkg* *(deb)* dpkg -i pkgin install
precompiled binaries* of GPLware and freeware* []( []( []( []( (deb) []( (deb) []( *(gen)* []( *(gen)* [](; *(md)* []( []( []( pkgin
C compiler cc gcc gcc [] gcc (may need to be installed via pkgin) []( )
configure/show  runtime linking ldconfig ldd readelf  lsmod crle ldd elfdump dump  pldd modinfo LD_PRELOAD crle ldd elfdump dump readelf  pldd modinfo LD_PRELOAD
tracing utility strace ltrace dtrace truss sotruss dtrace truss sotruss
define user defaults /etc/profile /etc/security/ /etc/skel/ /etc/profile.d/* /etc/default/login /etc/profile /etc/security/ /etc/default/login /etc/profile /etc/security/
csh global .login /etc/csh.login /etc/.login /etc/.login
default syslog and messages /var/log/syslog /var/log/messages /usr/adm/messages  /var/log/maillog /var/adm/messages /var/log/syslog []( /solaris_logs.shtml) /var/adm/messages /var/log/syslog
system error reporting tool dmesg_(deb)_ reportbug fmadm fmdump prtdiag fmadm fmdump
performance monitoring vmstat procinfo -D top htop pstree dtrace prstat sar ostat kstat mpstat netstat nfsstat vmstat lockstat plockstat  ptree vfsstat intrstat dtrace prstat  sar  ostat  kstat  mpstat  netstat  nfsstat  vmstat plockstat  ptree  vfsstat 
match process to file or port lsof netstat -atup fuser pfiles pfiles fuser lsof
zones/containers zoneadm zonecfg zlogin zoneadm zonename
Virtualization kvm/qemu kvm/qemu (each instance in a kvm branded zone) vmadm imgadm
[Wikipedia]( [Linux]( [SmartOS]( [Illumos]( [SmartOS]( [Illumos](

Examples of Different Use Context

For example, here are some common Linux commands that work differently.

Command What's different on a Smart Machine
df On most SmartOS image this is set up to use the GNU version. Use /usr/bin/df for the native version.
lsof SmartMachines use a different collection of tools to examine processes. See Examining processes and memory later in this topic.
ping Returns whether a host responds or not.  Use ping -s to get a continuous response.
top top is available in /opt/local/bin, but prstat -Z provides more zone aware (and more accurate) information than top.

The Rosetta Stone for Unix is a useful resource to help you see how commands from the version of UNIX you usually work with map to other versions of UNIX.

Examining processes and memory

SmartOS provides a suite of tools to examine processes. You can learn more about them by looking at the proc man page.

Tool Description
prstat This tool displays the active processes like top does on Linux systems. prstat -Z will provide you with a summary of your instance's status.
pgrep Returns a list of process IDs (PIDs) of processes that match a pattern or meet certain conditions.
pkill Kills the processes that match a pattern or meet certain conditions.
pfiles Returns a list of all the open files that belong to a process.
pstack Displays a stack trace of the specified process
ptree Displays a process tree for all processes or a given process
ls /proc Lists the process IDs of all running processes.

You can combine the results of pgrep with the other proc tools. To list all the files associated with http processes, use this command instead of lsof:

sudo pfiles $(pgrep http)

To limit the prstat display to http processes, use this command:

prstat $(pgrep -d , http)

The vmstatmpstat, and psrinfo commands display processor and memory statistics for the physical machine. Their output is not generally useful to you as a SmartMachine operator.

Starting and stopping services

On other systems, you may be used to starting and stopping servers by using commands in /etc/init.d. SmartMachines use the Service Management Facility (SMF) to do this. The svcs and svcadm commands are the ones you will use most often. Some commands take a service identifier called an FMRI. You can use the svcs command to list all of the identifiers for a service.

Command Description
svcs Lists all the enabled services
svcs -a Lists all of the services, even those that are disabled or off line
svcadm enable apache Enable all of the processes with an apache FMRI
svcadm disable apache Disable all of the processes with an apache FMRI
svcadm restart apache Restart all of the processes with an apache FMRI

For example, if you make changes to /etc/ssh/sshd_config, restart SSH like this:

sudo svcadm restart ssh

For more information on SMF, see this topic.